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Example usage of AppCompatActivity in Android

April 24, 2015 7 comments

The latest release of android support library, 22.1, deprecates the ActionBarActivity in favor of AppCompatActivity, which promises to bring a single consistent ActionBar for all devices starting with API Level 7 and above.
Also, the new update adds the ability to tint widgets automatically when using AppCompat, and adds support for consistent material design dialogs. Use support.v7.app.AlertDialog (instead of android.app.AlertDialog), to get nice looking material dialogs across multiple versions of devices.

android-support-22.1

Example:
1. In order to benefit from all these things, the first thing you should do is to update the support library to 22.1.0.

dependencies {
   // … 
   compile 'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:22.1.0'
}
2. Then let your activity extend AppCompatActivity.
public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {
  // ...
}
3. And finally, change the application theme to AppCompat or any descendants of it.
<application android:theme="@style/Theme.AppCompat">
Configuring the material color palette

Following the steps above will setup the application with the default theme, but the actionbar can be styled further by specifying the material color palette:

<style name="AppTheme" parent="Theme.AppCompat">
   <item name="colorPrimary">@color/primary</item>
   <item name="colorPrimaryDark">@color/primaryDark</item>
   <item name="colorAccent">@color/accent</item>
</style>

and then update your application theme to use AppTheme.

<application android:theme="@style/AppTheme">

Introduction to Android Espresso

April 4, 2015 6 comments

Espresso is a testing framework that exposes a simple API to perform UI testing of android apps. With the latest 2.0 release, Espresso is now part of the Android Support Repository which makes it more easier to add automated testing support for your project.

But before jumping into Espresso API, lets consider what puts it apart from the other testing frameworks.

  • One of the first things you’ll notice about Espresso, is that its code looks a lot like English, which makes it predictable and easy to learn.
  • The API is relatively small, and yet open for customization.
  • Espresso tests run optimally fast (no waits, sleeps)
  • Gradle + Android Studio support

Adding Espresso to your project

1. First of all make sure you have Android Support Repository installed

android sdk manager

2. Add the following dependencies to your application build.gradle file

dependencies {
   androidTestCompile 'com.android.support.test:testing-support-lib:0.1'
   androidTestCompile 'com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.0'
}

3. Finally, specify the test instrumentation runner in default config

android {

    defaultConfig {
        // ....
        testInstrumentationRunner "android.support.test.runner.AndroidJUnitRunner"
    }
}

And that is basically what it takes “to invite your project to a cup of Espresso”!

The main components of Espresso

Espresso is built up from 3 major components.

These components are:

  • ViewMatchers – allows you to locate a view in the current view hierarchy
  • ViewActions – allows you to interact with views
  • ViewAssertions – allows you to assert the state of a view.

For simplicity, you may use these shortcuts to refer to them:

  • ViewMatchers – “find something
  • ViewActions – “do something
  • ViewAssertions – “check something

And, for example when you will need to check something (like, is some text displayed on the screen?), you’ll know you’ll need a ViewAssertion for that.

Below is an example of a test in Espresso, and where the main components find their place.

Android Espresso main components

A simple test using onView()

Suppose we have an app where the user is asked to enter his name.
After he enters the name, he taps on the “Next” button and is redirected to another activity where a greeting message is displayed.

espresso simple test

If we would write a test for this scenario, then it might look something like this:

// locate the view with id "user_name" and type the text "John"
onView(withId(R.id.user_name)).perform(typeText("John"));

// locate the view with id "next" and click on it
onView(withId(R.id.next)).perform(click());

// locate the view with id "greeting_message" and check its text is equal with "Hello John!"
onView(withId(R.id.greeting_message)).check(matches(withText("Hello John!")));

Notice that we don’t specify explicitly what kind of view we are interacting with (eg.: EditText, Button), we simply say that we are looking for a view with a specific id.
Also, when clicking on the “Next” button and later checking the text, we don’t have to write some special code to tell Espresso that we have navigated to another activity.

Now, if we want to actually run this test, then it should be put in a class. In Gradle, the location where tests are stored is: yourApp/src/androidTest/java.

This is an example of a test class, and its main characteristics:

Espresso example test class

A simple test using onData()

Whenever you have a ListView, GridView, Spinner, and other Adapter based views, you’ll have to use onData() in order to interact with an item from that list.
onData() is targeting directly the data provided by your adapter. What does this mean, we will see in a moment.

In a hypothetical application we are asked to select a country from a Spinner, once selected, the country is displayed next to the Spinner.

espresso on data

A test to check that the displayed country is equal with what was selected, might look like this:

// locate the view with id "country_spinner" and click on it
onView(withId(R.id.country_spinner)).perform(click());

// match an item that is a String and is equal with whatever value the COUNTRY constant is initialized, then click on it.
onData(allOf(is(instanceOf(String.class)), is(COUNTRY))).perform(click());

// locate the view with id "selected_country" and check its text is equal with COUNTRY
onView(withId(R.id.selected_country)).check(matches(withText("selected: " + COUNTRY)));

The Spinner you saw in the example above is backed by a simple array of strings, and because of this, we specify that we are looking for an item of type String. If, instead of a String, it were some custom object, then we would specify that instead.
To illustrate, consider the following example where a list of books is displayed:

books-adapter

Since the items in the adapter are of type Book, so will look the query:

onData(allOf(is(instanceOf(Book.class)), withBookTitle(BOOK_TITLE))).perform(click());

DataInteractions

Espresso has a few useful methods that can be used to interact with data.

atPosition() – Might be useful when the element to interact with is not relevant, or when the items always appear in a specific order, so you know every item on what position sits.

onData(...).atPosition(2).perform(click());

inRoot() – Use inRoot() to target non-default windows. One scenario where this can be used is when testing autocomplete. The list that appears in the autocomplete view belongs to a window that is drawn on top of application window.
In this case you have to specify that the data you are looking for, is not in the main window.

onView(withText("AutoCompleteText"))
        .inRoot(withDecorView(not(is(getActivity().getWindow().getDecorView()))))
        .check(matches(isDisplayed()));

onChildView() – This DataInteraction allows to further refine the query by letting you interact with a specific view from a list row.
Let say that you have a list of items and every item has a delete button. You want to click on Delete button of a specific item:

onData(withBookTitle("My Book"))
      .onChildView(withId(R.id.book_delete)).perform(click());

inAdapterView() – This allows to select a particular adapter view to operate on, by default Espresso operates on any adapter view.
You may find this useful when dealing with ViewPagers and Fragments, and you want to interact with the AdapterView that is currently displayed, or when you have more than one adapter view in your activity.

onData(withBookTitle("My Book"))
      .inAdapterView(allOf(isAssignableFrom(AdapterView.class), isDisplayed()))
      .perform(click());

Espresso and RecyclerView

RecyclerView is an UI component designed to render a collection of data just like ListView and GridView, actually, it is intended to be a replacement of these two. What interests us from a testing point of view, is that a RecyclerView is no longer an AdapterView. This means that you can not use onData() to interact with list items.

Fortunately, there is a class called RecyclerViewActions that exposes a small API to operate on a RecyclerView. RecyclerViewActions is part of a separate lib called espresso-contrib, that also should be added to build.gradle:

dependencies {
    // ...

    androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-contrib:2.0');
}

Since your project already includes a dependency to recyclerview, and might as well include support libs, some dependencies conflicts might appear. In this case exclude
them from espresso-contrib like this:

dependencies {
    // ...

    androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-contrib:2.0') {
        exclude group: 'com.android.support', module: 'appcompat'
        exclude group: 'com.android.support', module: 'support-v4'
        exclude module: 'recyclerview-v7'
    }
}

Here is how to click on an item from the list by position:

onView(withId(R.id.recyclerView))
      .perform(RecyclerViewActions.actionOnItemAtPosition(0, click()));

Or how to perform a click on a View from an item:

onView(withId(R.id.recyclerView))
      .perform(RecyclerViewActions.actionOnItem(
                hasDescendant(withText(BOOK_TITLE)), click()));

More Espresso Examples on Github:
https://github.com/vgrec/EspressoExamples

Introducing SectionedActionBarList

November 27, 2014 2 comments

This Android library allows you to replace the drop down navigation list with a custom list where the items in the list are grouped by sections. It was inspired from the Google I/O 2014 app how sessions are grouped in the ActionBar list.

While the new Material Design movement discourages the use of ActionBar lists, in some situations it can be the best available option.

At the moment the library is not available on a repository, you have to include it as a source library in your project, but that will be fixed soon.

Github project page: https://github.com/vgrec/SectionedActionBarList

Example
List<Section> sections = new ArrayList<Section>();
 
Section themes = new Section("Themes");
themes.add("Design");
themes.add("Develop");
themes.add("Distribute");
sections.add(themes);
 
Section topics = new Section("Topics");
topics.add("Android");
topics.add("Chrome / Web");
topics.add("Cloud Services");
topics.add("Media");
topics.add("Location");
topics.add("Performance");
sections.add(topics);
 
Section types = new Section("Types");
types.add("Sessions");
types.add("App Reviews");
types.add("Box Talks");
sections.add(topics);
 
SectionedActionBarList actionBarList = new SectionedActionBarList(this).from(sections);
actionBarList.setItemSelectedListener(new ItemSelectedListener() {
  @Override
  public void onItemSelected(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int position, long id, String sectionName, String itemName) {
      Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, "Section: " + sectionName + ", Item: " + itemName, Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
  }
});

The SectionedActionBarList accepts a list of sections List<Section> sections, and every Section has a name and some associated items.

sectioned actionbar list

Configuration

Small customizations can be done to fit with your application design:

ListConfiguration configuration = new ListConfiguration(this);
configuration.setActionBarItemColorResource(R.color.brown);
configuration.setIndicatorDrawableResource(R.drawable.spinner_indicator_dark);
configuration.setSectionTitleColorResource(R.color.teal);
configuration.setDropdownItemColorResources(R.color.light_blue, R.color.dark_grey);

SectionedActionBarSpinner actionBarSpinner = new SectionedActionBarSpinner(this, configuration).from(sections);
// ....

actionbar list

Analysing Android code with SonarQube

May 29, 2014 4 comments

sonar analysis

SonarQube, formerly known as Sonar, is a platform to analyze code quality. Analysis covers such aspects as code duplications, potential bugs, coding rules, complexity, unit tests, comments, and architecture & design.
It supports supports more than 20 programming languages and has a reach set of useful plugins that gives you the opportunity to inspect different aspects of the code.

What is caracteristic about SonarQube is that it comes as a platform in the form of a web application. This means that the results of the analysis will be displayed in a web page.

Installing SonarQube

The installation is pretty straightforward, you have just to download an archive and extract it in a folder of your choice.
1. Go to http://www.sonarqube.org/downloads/ and download the latest release.
2. Unzip the archive

Starting SonarQube

1. Go to sonarqube-4.3/bin (or whatever version you downloaded)
2. Open a corresponding folder according to your operating system (linux-x86-64 in my case). There you should see a file called sonar.sh (or StartSonar.bat for Windows)
3. Open up a terminal window and execute: sonar.sh start (or just double click StartSonar.bat on windows). This command will start sonar listening on localhost:9000.
4. Open a browser and enter localhost:9000. The sonar web page should open.
Note that it may take some time until sonar loads, so if you get “page not found” in your browser, try to refresh the page later.

Installing SonarQube Runner

There are several ways to analyse the source code and in this tutorial we will choose to analyse with SonarQube Runner, recommended as the default launcher to analyze a project.

1. Once again go to http://www.sonarqube.org/downloads/ and download SonarQube Runner
2. Extract the downloaded archive into a directory of your choise, which we will refer as: <install_directory>
3. Update global settings by editing: <install_directory>/conf/sonar-runner.properties (if you are running sonar on localhost, like in this tutorial, you don’t have to modify any settings):

#----- Default SonarQube server
#sonar.host.url=http://localhost:9000

#----- PostgreSQL
#sonar.jdbc.url=jdbc:postgresql://localhost/sonar

#----- MySQL
#sonar.jdbc.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/sonar?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8

#----- Oracle
#sonar.jdbc.url=jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost/XE

#----- Oracle
#sonar.jdbc.url=jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost/XE

#----- Microsoft SQLServer
#sonar.jdbc.url=jdbc:jtds:sqlserver://localhost/sonar;SelectMethod=Cursor

#----- Global database settings
#sonar.jdbc.username=sonar
#sonar.jdbc.password=sonar

4. Create a new SONAR_RUNNER_HOME environment variable set to <install_directory>, so that you could invoke sonar runner from any location.
5. Add the <install_directory>/bin directory to your path.

To check that sonar runner was installed properly, open a terminal window and execute sonar-runner -h.

You should get a message like this:

usage: sonar-runner [options]

Options:
-D,--define Define property
-e,--errors Produce execution error messages
-h,--help Display help information
-v,--version Display version information
-X,--debug Produce execution debug output

Analysing source code of a project

Once the sonar runner is properly installed, we can proceed to code analysis.

1. Navigate to the root directory of your project and create a file called sonar-project.properties, which will specify the project settings such as the code source directory, language used, and the project name:

sonar.projectKey=myproject
sonar.projectName=My Project
sonar.projectVersion=1.0

sonar.sources=src
sonar.language=java
sonar.sourceEncoding=UTF-8

Note: for Android Studio, which follows the gradle directory structure, set the sourses as:

sonar.sources=src/main/java

2. Run sonar-runner command to start the analysis.
3. Once the analysis complets, head to localhost:9000 to see the results for your project.

Removing a project from SonarQube

First login as an administrator, admin/admin default username and password.

1. Go to your project dashboard
2. In the top right corner click on Configuration -> Deletion -> Delete Project

delete-shonar-project

Android Volley Tutorial

February 1, 2014 3 comments

Volley is an android library released by Google that can make your life easier when dealing with network operations. In this blog post I will mention the main features of the library and show a few example usages, in particular, how to make a request, how to download images, and how to use the cache.

Features of Volley library

a) Automatically schedules the network requests

b) Supports request prioritization. This means that you can load content depending of priorities, for example the main content could have a high priority, but the images a low priority.

c) Provides transparent disk and memory cache that allows for quick reloading of data. Transparent cache means that the caller doesn’t have to know about the existence of the cache. That is, the cache is implemented automatically. You do, however, have the possibility to disable the caching.

d) Provides a good API for canceling requests. You can cancel a single request, or cancel requests depending on some filters.

Besides the great features that Volley comes with, you don’t have to use it for everything. Volley is great for RPC-style network operations that populate UI, a typical example would be loading thumbnail images into a ListView, but not very good for streaming operations like downloading a video or mp3.

Getting started with Volley

1. Clone the Volley project:
git clone https://android.googlesource.com/platform/frameworks/volley
2. Import the library into your project

The most frequent classes of Volley that you will work with are RequestQueue and Request, and ImageLoader when dealing with images loading.

RequestQueue is used for dispatching requests to the network. It is recommended to create it early and use it as a Singleton.
Request is the base class for creating network requests (GET, POST).
ImageLoader is a helper class that handles loading and caching images from remote URLs.

Step 1: VolleySingleton.java

As recommended, lets create first a Singleton class that will return on demand an instance of RequestQueue and one of ImageLoader.

public class VolleySingleton {

    private static VolleySingleton instance;
    private RequestQueue requestQueue;
    private ImageLoader imageLoader;

    private VolleySingleton(Context context) {
        requestQueue = Volley.newRequestQueue(context);

        imageLoader = new ImageLoader(requestQueue, new ImageLoader.ImageCache() {
            private final LruCache<String, Bitmap> cache = new LruCache<String, Bitmap>(20);


            @Override
            public Bitmap getBitmap(String url) {
                return cache.get(url);
            }

            @Override
            public void putBitmap(String url, Bitmap bitmap) {
                cache.put(url, bitmap);
            }
        });
    }


    public static VolleySingleton getInstance(Context context) {
        if (instance == null) {
            instance = new VolleySingleton(context);
        }
        return instance;
    }

    public RequestQueue getRequestQueue() {
        return requestQueue;
    }

    public ImageLoader getImageLoader() {
        return imageLoader;
    }
}
Step 2: Add internet permission
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET" /> 
Step 3: Create an instance of RequestQueue
RequestQueue queue = VolleySingleton.getInstance(this).getRequestQueue();
Step 4: Create the request

Volley comes with a class called JsonRequest that you can use to make requests to a server that returns a json response.
However, in this example we will query an RSS feed which returns a response in XML format. Volley does not include a similar class for handling xml responses, like JsonRequest, but it has StringRequest class that can be used to retrieve the response body as a String.

There are two ways to construct a StringRequest:

StringRequest(int method, String url, Listener<String> listener,
            ErrorListener errorListener)

or

StringRequest(String url, Listener<String> listener, ErrorListener errorListener)

The second constructor does not take the request method as a parameter, when not specified, a GET request is created.

Listener is a callback interface for delivering the result, and
ErrorListener is a callback interface for delivering error responses.

Example:

String url = "http://www.pcworld.com/index.rss";
StringRequest request = new StringRequest(url, new Listener<String>() {

            @Override
            public void onResponse(String response) {
                // we got the response, now our job is to handle it 
                parseXmlResponse(response); 
            }
        }, new ErrorListener() {

            @Override
            public void onErrorResponse(VolleyError error) {
               //something happened, treat the error.
            }
        });
Step 6: Execute the request
queue.add(request);

And that is all! The execution of the request implies its addition to the RequestQueue.

Step 7: Loading thumbnail images

Loading images can be done easy if you replace the android’s ImageView with Volley’s NetworkImageView:

<com.android.volley.toolbox.NetworkImageView
        android:id="@+id/icon"
        android:layout_width="80dp"
        android:layout_height="80dp"
        android:src="@drawable/default_placeholder" />

then use setImageUrl() and you are done!

String url = "..."; // URL of the image
ImageView imageView = (ImageView)view.findViewById(R.id.image);
ImageLoader imageLoader = VolleySingleton.getImageLoader(); 
imageView.setImageUrl(url, imageLoader); 

If, for some reason, you don’t want or can’t use NetworkImageView, then there’s an alternate method.
You can use the get() method of ImageLoader class which accepts the image url and an instance of ImageListener:

ImageLoader imageLoader = VolleySingleton.getImageLoader(); 
imageLoader.get(url, new ImageListener() {
             
            public void onErrorResponse(VolleyError error) {
                imageView.setImageResource(R.drawable.icon_error); // set an error image if the download fails
            }
             
            public void onResponse(ImageContainer response, boolean arg1) {
                if (response.getBitmap() != null) {
                    imageView.setImageBitmap(response.getBitmap());
                } 
            }
        });
Reading from cache

One of the Volley’s features is that it provides transparent disk and memory cache. The cache is implemented automatically for classes that extends Request, such as JsonRequest and StringRequest.

To read the cache:

Entry entry = queue.getCache().get(url);
if(entry!=null){
     String data = new String(entry.data, "UTF-8");
     // process data
}

To turn off the cache:

request.setShouldCache(false);

to remove the cache for a specific request:

queue.getCache().remove(url);

to clear all cache:

queue.getCache().clear();

to invalidate the cache: this will allow to display the cached data until the response is received. When the response is received, it will automatically override the cached data.

queue.getCache().invalidate(url, true);

For more details about Volley you can watch the full video at: https://developers.google.com/events/io/sessions/325304728

Using Maven to save the build time in a properties file

Create a folder called build in the root directory of the project, and a file build.properties with the following content:

build.time=@buildtime@

Using the maven replacer plugin we can replace the token @buildtime@ within the build.properties file with the build timestamp value, and then let the Android application read that value and use it.

 
<plugins>
     <plugin>
         <groupId>com.google.code.maven-replacer-plugin</groupId>
         <artifactId>replacer</artifactId>
         <version>1.5.2</version>
         <executions>
            <execution>
               <phase>validate</phase>
               <goals>
                  <goal>replace</goal>
               </goals>
            </execution>
         </executions>
         <configuration>
            <file>build/build.properties</file>
               <outputFile>res/raw/build.properties</outputFile>
               <replacements>
                  <replacement>
                     <token>@buildtime@</token>
                     <value>${maven.build.timestamp}</value>
                  </replacement>
               </replacements>
        </configuration>
   </plugin>
</plugin>

Run this task with mvn validate command. This will do nothing but replace the tokens from build.properties file with the timestamp value, and output the result to a new file in res/raw.

From here on the file can be accessed as a raw resource and read as a regular properties file.

Reading the properties file:

InputStream rawResource = resources.openRawResource(R.raw.build);
Properties properties = new Properties();
properties.load(rawResource);
String buildTime = properties.getProperty("build.time");

Using Maven in Android to build for different environments (dev, staging, prod, etc)

July 18, 2013 4 comments

If you are working on a relatively complex project, chances are that you may need to build the application against different environments, such as a development, a staging, and a production environment. Assuming you are using Maven as a build tool, here’s one solution how Maven could help with this.

For the sake of this example let assume that you are working on an Android app that consumes web services. You have a dedicated development environment where you spent most of the time, but once every two weeks you need to make a version of the app that is built for production.

Let assume that the endpoint for the testing environment is dev.mysite.com, and for the production environment is: prod.mysite.com.
But as an aspiring developer and after reading a bunch of books about best practices, you can no longer accept to just go and manually edit the source files by changing all over the place one environment with another, and you ask yourself if Maven could help with this.

It can, and here’s how.
The main idea is to store all the properties, in this particular example all the urls, in separate resource files. Then, using maven resource plugin copy the corresponding property file into values/environment.xml.

1. In your project root directory create following directory structure:
environment/dev/environment.xml
environment/prod/environment.xml

maven environment

2. Then fill the content of the resource files with appropriate values.
/dev/environment.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
    <string name="url">http://dev.mysite.com</string>
</resources>

/prod/environment.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
    <string name="url">http://prod.mysite.com</string>
</resources>

3. Add the maven resource plugin to pom.xml by specifying the phase when the copy action should be executed, the resources, and the output directory:

//...
<plugins>
    <plugin>
        <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>2.4.3</version>
        <executions>
             <execution>
                <id>copy-string-resources</id>
                <phase>validate</phase> <!-- when to execute copy operation -->
                <goals>
                    <goal>copy-resources</goal>
                </goals>
                <configuration>
                    <resources>
                        <resource>
                            <directory>environment/${environment}/</directory>
                            <includes>
                               <include>environment.xml</include>
                               <filtering>true</filtering>
                            </includes>
                        </resource>
                    </resources>
                    <overwrite>true</overwrite>
                    <outputDirectory>${basedir}/res/values/</outputDirectory>
                </configuration>
      </plugin>
</plugins>

4.1 From this point on, you can automate the preparation of environment by creating 2 run configurations:
mvn validate -Denvironment=dev
mvn validate -Denvironment=prod

that will do nothing but copy the appropriate resources from evironment/${environment}/environment.xml, into values/environment.xml

Now, every time you’ll need to prepare a build against a specific environment, the only thing you’ll need to do will be to run one of those commands.

4.2 Another option, to make the things even more compact, is instead of passing the environment like this: -Denvironment=dev, would be to create 2 profiles in pom.xml:

<profiles>
   <profile>
       <id>development</id>
       <properties>
           <environment>dev</environment>
       </properties>
   </profile>

   <profile>
       <id>prod</id>
       <properties>
           <environment>prod</environment>
       </properties>
   </profile>
</profiles>

and then create 2 run configurations with appropriate profile:
mvn validate -P development
mvn validate -P prod

For easy access at environment resources you could create a class like this that will return all the environment properties your applications uses:

public class ApplicationEnvironment{
	
	//...
	
	public String getServerUrl(){
		return resources.getString(R.string.url);
	}	
}
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